Besides the portfolio of measures advocated to fight climate change (energy savings, clean transport, renewable energies…), the international community also acknowledged the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS) to be a crucial method to limit global warming.
From here on, the field of CCUS takes an international scope in 1990 with the implementation of an agreement on the management of greenhouse gases by the International Energy Agency (IEA-GHG). Since 2001, the ADEME represents France through the program, and French actors (research organizations and industrialists) thus decide to get involved in the discipline.
To this day, five major development clusters can be distinguished: Australia, the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. Every country devises a strategy and a program of their own in order to develop actions on the topic.
Numerous actions are undertaken worldwide; mentioned hereunder are only the main programs involving France’s contribution:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Organization founded in 1988 at the request of G7 (the 7 wealthier countries at the time: the United States, japan, Germany, France, Great Britain, Canada, Italy) by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Aim : appraise scientific, technical and socio-economical information related to the risks of climate change triggered by men.
Main activities: regularly proceed to a review of global knowledge on the subject of climate change; issue reports and technical documents on topics that necessitate independent information and scientific opinions; contribute to the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by helping to develop methods of national registers on greenhouse gases.
Various documentation and reports are available on the IPCC website.
International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D program (IEA-GHG)
Established in 1991 by an agreement between the International Energy Agency (IEA), 17 countries, the European Commission and the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries). 14 multinational companies bring financial backup to the table. The ADEME, with the support of the BRGM and IFPEN, represents France at the Executive Committee.
Aim: evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation technologies; communicate studies’ results and promote research on the subject.
Main activities: technical and financial reviews of technological options assigned to greenhouse gas mitigation; coordinate several international research networks on CO2 capture and storage, biofixation, related risks, monitoring and GHGs other than CO2; organization of a yearly international conference; distribution of various publications.
More information on the IEAGHG website.
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF)
Instigated in 2003 by the American government, 22 countries are members of the forum (among which, France).
Aim: promote the development and spreading of the CO2 capture, transport and geological storage technologies.
Main activities: identifying technological bottle-necks and other types of barriers (financial, legal, political and social); distributing viable technologies internationally; organizing consultations with different parties (industrialists, NGOs…) about reducing the quantities of CO2 in the atmosphere.
More information on the CSL Forum website
Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute (GCCSI)
Created by the Australian government in 2009, GCCSI is a not-for-profit organization made of a unique partnership of governments, industries, non-governmental and research organizations from all various countries supporting CCUS, among which: CSLF, IEA, World Coal Association, International Aluminium Institute, CCS Association, Asian Development Bank, World Bank, Climate group, Clinton Climate Initiative and Coal Industry Advisory Board.
Aim: foster and share the know-how necessary to develop CCUS in order to significantly reduce greenhouse gases world emissions.
Main activities: managing a resource centre specialized in CCUS; developing communication and lobbying actions based on R&D projects results; supporting CCUS projects. Through GCCSI, various CCUS actors can exchange on the obstacles they met and learn from each other to speed up the development of projects.
More information on the GCCSI website
European technological platform : Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants (ZEP)
In 2005, the European Commission, European industry, NGOs and scientists partnered to create this platform, which aim is to prove the ability of European power plants working on fossil fuels to reach a zero emission rate by 2020.
More information on the ZEP Website
European Network of Excellence on the Geological Storage of CO2 (CO2GeoNet)
CO2GeoNet is a network gathering public research institutes of European countries to promote the rollout of European CO2 geological storage projects.
More information on the CO2GeoNet Website
Carbon Dioxide Knowledge Sharing Network (CO2NET)
This European network on CCUS was created to facilitate exchanges between all involved parties (54 organizations in 18 countries).
More information on the CO2 net Website
In 2002, Club CO2 was initiated by the ADEME and supported by the IFPEN and BRGM, the latter acting as secretary.
A key element in the organization of French research in the field of carbon capture and storage, it serves as a response to the need of a more effective management for national efforts, while creating better public visibility. The members of the Club are all key players in the industry, research and development.
As a clearinghouse for information, dialogue and good practices among its members on CCUS research and technological developments, the Club encourages cooperation at a national level between public and private sectors, and several research projects have since then been initiated under its tutelage.
More information in the section : About the Club
The first framework program was created in 1984 as a community investment tool for research and innovation in Europe. The 7th framework (period 2007-2013) subsidizes, among other things, R&D projects lead by European consortia.
More information on the European Commission website
At the dual instigation of Europe and the “Grenelle de l’environnement” (French law on environmental measures), France got involved in international R&D, created a financial backing fund for demonstration operations, and invests in its own research projects via the ADEME and ANR.
National research agency (Agence Nationale de la Recherche: ANR)
Since the ANR was created, invitations to tender were officially communicated from 2005 to 2008 to cover the technologies for CCUS, as well as other related aspects (safety, socio-economic and environmental evaluations, social acceptance, risk analyses, law…), and all this under the research program “CO2 capture and storage”. In total, 33 projects were subsidized by the ANR, for more than 27 million euros of funds.
In 2011, the ANR communicated another invitation to tender on CCUS with its new program SEED (efficient and carbon-free energy systems).
More information on the ANR website
Environment and energy management agency (Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie : ADEME)
The ADEME financed 26 research and development projects on CCUS between 2001 and 2009.
In 2002, the ADEME communicated an invitation to tender on CO2 capture, transport and storage. Several projects are run by industrial actors of the field (Air Liquide, Alstom, ArcelorMittal, EDF, GDF Suez, Lafarge, Total…) with the funding of ADEME. Topics include calcium cycle, cryonics, oxycombustion, solvents and chemical looping.
The roadmap elaborated in 2008 helps identifying the needs for research, and prompts the ADEME to call for expressions of interest on CCUS research demonstrators. This capital aims to support the development of research demonstrators – installations between experimentation and commercial development used to validate the results issued from research studies. Three main projects hence financed by the ADEME are being implemented:
C2A2 (EDF, Alstom)
ULCOS TGR-BF (ArcelorMittal),
France Nord (Total).
In 2010, within the ambit of the “investments for the future”, the ADEME is asked to manage the program “Demonstrators and technological platform in renewable and carbon-free energies, and green chemistry”. Following this, a new call for expressions of interest on CCUS was communicated in 2011.
More information in the section CCUS in practice and on the ADEME website.