To this day, only five large-scale integrated CCUS projects are active in the world. Four projects inject CO2 underground that comes from installations of natural gas production:
Sleipner, run by Statoil off the coast of Norway: storage in saline aquifers
In Salah, under the lead of a consortium (BP, Statoil and Sonatrach) in Algeria: storage in saline aquifers
Snøhvit, directed by Statoil off the coast of Norway: storage in saline aquifers
A project of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) – Rangely, USA
A fifth project (Weyburn-Midale), managed by EnCana, captures CO2 from a factory which produces synthetic natural gas by gasifying coal – Great Plains Synfuels – located in the United States, and transports it all the way to Canada via pipeline to keep on working the field of Weyburn by means of EOR.
Those five projects provide for the knowledge base necessary to develop CCUS.
In France, we can count four projects which are not all full scale. Two integrated projects: Lacq, currently operative, and ULCOS TGR-BF, in development. The two remaining are a CO2 capture demonstration project (C2A2) and a CO2 storage demonstration project (France Nord).
Lacq - Rousse Pilot
The industrial pilot in Lacq, run by Total, is the first industrial CCS project in Europe. It aims to:
improve the management of oxycombustion
reduce costs for CO2 capture and improve its energy efficiency
prove the feasibility of an existing boiler's transformation into an oxycombustion boiler
manage a complete industrial line of capture/ transport/ storage.
C2A2 project consists in assessing the potential of emerging CO2 capturing technologies before an industrial development of solutions for the power sector. A research demonstrator of CO2 capture will be tested on the EDF power plant of Le Havre.
France Nord project aims to limit GHG emissions by studying the cost and feasibility of a CO2 geological storage site in deep saline aquifers.
ULCOS TGR-BF project (Ultra-Low CO2 Steelmaking) is a demonstration project for CO2 capture, transport and geological storage in the steel industry.